Red Grape (Vitis vinifera)

Grapes are one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world. They also provide some incredible benefits for human health with their high antioxidant content. The antioxidant resveratrol is found in red grape skins and seeds and is very beneficial, as are the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. The various types of antioxidants vary from species to species in the grape family. Grapes have been studied for their anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity as well as their antioxidants.

 

 

Jin, Heung Yong, Youn Soo Cha, Hong Sun Baek, and Tae Sun Park, corresponding author. Neuroprotective effects of Vitis vinifera extract on prediabetic mice induced by a high-fat diet. Korean J Intern Med. 2013 Sep; 28(5): 579–586. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3759764/

Bak, Min-Ji, Van Long Truong, Hey-Sook Kang, Mira Jun, and Woo-Sik Jeong. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013; 2013: 409321. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821960/

Han, Hye Jin, et al. Dual effects of a mixture of grape pomace (Campbell Early) and Omija fruit ethanol extracts on lipid metabolism and the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced obese mice. Nutr Res Pract. 2015 Jun; 9(3): 227–234. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4460053/

Ma,  Teng, Meng-Shan Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, and Lan Tan. Resveratrol as a Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 350516. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4261550/

Carter, Lindsay G, John A D'Orazio, and Kevin J Pearson. Resveratrol and cancer: focus on in vivo evidence. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014 Jun; 21(3): R209–R225. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013237/

Georgiev, Vasil, Anthony Ananga, and Violeta Tsolova. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals. Nutrients. 2014 Jan; 6(1): 391–415. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916869/

Bak, Min-Ji, Mira Jun, and Woo-Sik Jeong. Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds Regulate ARE-Mediated Enzyme Expression via Nrf2 Coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt Pathway in HepG2 Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(1): 801–818. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3269721/

Zhou, Kequan, and Julian J. Raffoul. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants. J Oncol. 2012; 2012: 803294. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420094/

Veskoukis, Aristidis S., et al. The Antioxidant Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract In Vitro Do Not Correspond In Vivo Using Exercise as an Oxidant Stimulus. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012; 2012: 185867. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3368594/

Doshi, Pooja, corresponding author, Pandurang Adsule, Kaushik Banerjee, and Dasharath Oulkar. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and insulinotropic effect of extracts prepared from grape (Vitis vinifera L) byproducts. J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Jan; 52(1): 181–190. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4288794/