Jujube or Chinese Date (Ziziphus jujuba)
Jujubes contain a wide variety of different minerals, including magnesium, potassium, copper, calcium, manganese, phosphorus, and iron. They contain 20 times more vitamin C than any citrus fruit, strengthen the immune system and fight infections, which is why they've been used medicinally for millennia as a tea for sore throats and other ailments.
Studies show that jujube fruits and extracts can help lower blood pressure, reverse liver disease, treat anemia, and inhibit the growth of tumor cells that can lead to leukemia. Jujube extracts are also used in skin care products to diminish wrinkles, relieve dry skin, and treat sunburn.
How one fruit can have all these benefits has to do with not just the combination, but also the complexity of its phytonutrients. Scientists have identified eight flavonoids in jujube fruit, including spinosin and swertish, which have sedative properties – undoubtedly the reason jujube seeds are used to treat anxiety and insomnia in TCM.
Mohammad Reza Abedini, Nafiseh Erfanian, Habibollah Nazem, Sara Jamali, Reyhane Hoshyar. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Ziziphus Jujube on cervical and breast cancer cells. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Mar-Apr; 6(2): 142–148.
Natthanan Taechakulwanijya, Natthida Weerapreeyakul, Sahapat Barusrux, Sirithorn Siriamornpun. Apoptosis-inducing effects of jujube (Zǎo) seed extracts on human Jurkat leukemia T cells. Chin Med. 2016; 11: 15. Published online 2016 Apr 1. doi: 10.1186/s13020-016-0085-x.
Valiollah Hajhashemi, Azadeh Safaei. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice. Res Pharm Sci. 2015 Nov-Dec; 10(6): 477–484.
Vivian Yvonne Shin, Wallace Hau-Leung So, Edgar Shiu-Lam Liu, Ying-Jye Wu, Shiu-Fun Pang, Chi-Hin Cho. Anti-tumorigenic and Pro-apoptotic effects of CKBM on gastric cancer growth in nude mice. Int J Med Sci. 2004; 1(3): 137–145. Published online 2004 Aug 5.
Zhan Zheng, William Chi-Shing Cho, Ling Xu, Juyong Wang, Daniel Man-Yuen Sze. Lessons Learnt from Evidence-Based Approach of Using Chinese Herbal Medicines in Liver Cancer. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 656351. Published online 2013 May 29. doi: 10.1155/2013/656351.
Zhuo-ping Yu, Dong-dong Xu, Lai-feng Lu, Xiao-dong Zheng, Wei Chen. J Zhejiang .Immunomodulatory effect of a formula developed from American ginseng and Chinese jujube extracts in mice. Univ Sci B. 2016 Feb; 17(2): 147–157. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1500170.
Zoya Tahergorabi, Mohammad Reza Abedini, Moodi Mitra, Mohammad Hassanpour Fard, Hossein Beydokhti. “Ziziphus jujuba”: A red fruit with promising anticancer activities. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015 Jul-Dec; 9(18): 99–106. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.162108.
Beihua Bao, Ting Geng, Yudan Cao, Weifeng Yao, Li Zhang, Anwei Ding. Effects of Schizonepetin on Activity and mRNA Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(12): 17006–17018. Published online 2012 Dec 12. doi: 10.3390/ijms131217006.
Arifa Mehreen, Muzzamil Waheed, Iram Liaqat, Najma Arshad. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat. Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016: 8503426. Published online 2016 Jun 26. doi: 10.1155/2016/8503426.
Ayat Kaeidi, Majid Taati, Zahra Hajializadeh, Faranak Jahandari, Marzieh Rashidipour. Aqueous extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruit attenuates glucose induced neurotoxicity in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy.
Dandan Han, Changrong Wan, Fenghua Liu, Xiaolong Xu, Linshu Jiang, Jianqin Xu. Jujuboside A Protects H9C2 Cells from Isoproterenol-Induced Injury via Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016: 9593716. Published online 2016 May 16. doi: 10.1155/2016/9593716.
F Daneshmand, H Zare-Zardini, B Tolueinia, Z Hasani, T Ghanbari. Crude Extract from Ziziphus Jujuba Fruits, a Weapon against Pediatric Infectious Disease. Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol. 2013; 3(1): 216–221. Published online 2013 Jan 22.
Fatemeh Vahedi, Mohsen Fathi Najafi, Kazem Bozari. Evaluation of inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of Zyzyphus Jujube on tumor cell lines, an in vitro preliminary study. Cytotechnology. 2008 Feb; 56(2): 105–111. Published online 2008 Feb 9. doi: 10.1007/s10616-008-9131-6. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015 Mar; 18(3): 301–306.
M F Lee, J J Tsai, G Y Hwang, S J Lin, Y H Chen. Identification of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding epitopes and recombinant IgE reactivities of a latex cross-reacting Indian jujube Ziz m 1 allergen. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Jun; 152(3): 464–471. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03661.x.
Mina Hemmati, Elham Zohoori, Omid Mehrpour, Mehdi Karamian, Somaye Asghari, Asghar Zarban, Roya Nasouti. Anti-atherogenic potential of jujube, saffron and barberry: anti-diabetic and antioxidant actions. EXCLI J. 2015; 14: 908–915. Published online 2015 Aug 4. doi: 10.17179/excli2015-232.