Hawthorn berry (Crataegus)
In Europe, hawthorn is widely regarded as a safe and effective treatment for the early stages of heart disease. The German government has endorsed it through Commission E- a government agency that studies and approves herbal treatments. It promotes the health of the circulatory system and isuseful in treating angina, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmia. It has been found to strengthen the heart and stabilise it against arrythmias.
Evidence for cardiovascular system improvement, particularly in clinical parameters associated with angina, congestive heart failure and acute myocardial infarct also exists. This may be due to the herb's antioxidant activity. Its use in the treatment of hepatitis in modern Chinese medicine is supported by the demonstration of hepatoprotective activity in animal studies.
Ali Rezaei-Golmisheh, Hassan Malekinejad, Siamak Asri-Rezaei, Amir Abbas Farshid, Peyman Akbari. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia‐induced oxidative stress in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015 Jul; 18(7): 691–699.
Ann F Walker, Georgios Marakis, Eleanor Simpson, Jessica L Hope, Paul A Robinson, Mohamed Hassanein, Hugh CR Simpson. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2006 Jun 1; 56(527): 437–443.
Chang-Nam Ko, Seong-Uk Park, Gyu-Tae Chang, Woo-Sang Jung, Sang-Kwan Moon, Jung-Mi Park, Ki-Ho Cho. Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of the Mixture of Ginseng Radix and Crataegi Fructus: Experimental Study and Preliminary Clinical Results. J Ginseng Res. 2011 Jun; 35(2): 162–169. doi: 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.2.162.
Chun-Ching Shih, Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Yih-Jiun Lin, Jin-Bin Wu. Validation of the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Hawthorn by Assessment of Gluconeogenesis and Lipogenesis Related Genes and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 597067. Published online 2013 Apr 16. doi: 10.1155/2013/597067.
Chunmei Li, Myeong-Hyeon Wang. Anti-inflammatory effect of the water fraction from hawthorn fruit on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Nutr Res Pract. 2011 Apr; 5(2): 101–106. Published online 2011 Apr 23. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2011.5.2.101.
Gary N Asher, Anthony J Viera, Mark A Weaver, Rosalie Dominik, Melissa Caughey, Alan L Hinderliter. Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12: 26. Published online 2012 Mar 29. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-26.
Hai-Jie Hu, Xue-Gang Luo, Qing-Qing Dong, Ai Mu, Guo-Long Shi, Qiu-Tong Wang, Xiao-Ying Chen, Hao Zhou, Tong-Cun Zhang, Li-Wen Pan. Ethanol extract of Zhongtian hawthorn lowers serum cholesterol in mice by inhibiting transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- CoA reductase via nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathway Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2016 Mar; 241(6): 667–674. Published online 2016 Jan 28. doi: 10.1177/1535370215627032.
Hassan Malekinejad, Vahid Shafie-Irannejad, Rahim Hobbenaghi, Seyed Hamed Tabatabaie, Seyed-Mehdi Moshtaghion. Comparative Protective Effect of Hawthorn Berry Hydroalcoholic Extract, Atorvastatin, and Mesalamine on Experimentally Induced Colitis in Rats. J Med Food. 2013 Jul; 16(7): 593–601. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2672.
In Sik Shin, Mee Young Lee, Hye Sun Lim, Hyekyung Ha, Chang Seob Seo, Jong-Choon Kim, Hyeun Kyoo Shin. An Extract of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Ovalbumin Induced Asthma. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9): e45734. Published online 2012 Sep 21. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045734.
Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Yanan Liu, Hyun-Sook Kim. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats. Nutrients. 2016 May; 8(5): 283. Published online 2016 May 13. doi: 10.3390/nu8050283.
Jie Wang, Xingjiang Xiong, Bo Feng. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 149363. Published online 2013 Dec 29. doi: 10.1155/2013/149363.
John K. Triantafillidis, Aikaterini Triantafyllidi, Constantinos Vagianos, Apostolos Papalois. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies. Ann Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul-Sep; 29(3): 268–281. Published online 2016 Feb 20. doi: 10.20524/aog.2016.0059.
Leila Jalaly, Gholamreza Sharifi, Mohammad Faramarzi, Alireza Nematollahi, Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei, Masoud Amiri, Fariborz Moattar. Comparison of the effects of Crataegus oxyacantha extract, aerobic exercise and their combination on the serum levels of ICAM-1 and E-Selectin in patients with stable angina pectoris. Daru. 2015; 23: 54. Published online 2015 Dec 19. doi: 10.1186/s40199-015-0137-2.
Mükerrem Hatipoğlu, Mehmet Sağlam, Serhat Köseoğlu, Ekrem Köksal, Ali Keleş, Hacı Hasan Esen. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0128134. Published online 2015 Jun 1. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128134.
Rongxin Qin, Kangkang Xiao, Bin Li, Weiwei Jiang, Wei Peng, Jiang Zheng, Hong Zhou. The Combination of Catechin and Epicatechin Gallate from Fructus Crataegi Potentiates β-Lactam Antibiotics Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Vitro and in Vivo. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Jan; 14(1): 1802–1821. Published online 2013 Jan 16. doi: 10.3390/ijms14011802.
Tung-Ting Sham, Chi-On Chan, You-Hua Wang, Jian-Mei Yang, Daniel Kam-Wah Mok, Shun-Wan Chan. A Review on the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Formulae with Hypolipidemic Effect. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 925302. Published online 2014 Jul 7. doi: 10.1155/2014/925302.
Yu-Qiang Liu, Qian Cai, Chang Liu, Feng-Wei Bao, Zhen-Qiu Zhang. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multi-Ingredients after Oral Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Extract, Hawthorn Extract, and a Combination of Both Extracts to Rats. J Anal Methods Chem. 2014; 2014: 617367. Published online 2014 Feb 10. doi: 10.1155/2014/617367.
Yuguang Lin, Mario A. Vermeer, Elke A. Trautwein. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 801272. Published online 2010 Oct 19. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep007.